It’s exciting — and a little scary — to think about buying your first home. Even when you know you’re ready to buy a house, you might not be sure where to begin. These tips for first-time home buyers will help you navigate the process from start to finish. Preparing to buy tips:
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1. Start saving early
When calculating how much money you need to buy a house, consider one-time expenses as well as new, recurring bills. Here are the main upfront costs to consider when saving for a home: Down payment: Your down payment requirement will depend on the type of mortgage you choose and the lender. Some conventional loans aimed at first-time home buyers with excellent credit require as little as 3% down. But even a small down payment can be challenging to save. For example, a 3% down payment on a $300,000 home is $9,000. Use a down payment calculator to decide on a goal, and then set up automatic transfers from checking to savings to get started. Closing costs: These are the fees and expenses you pay to finalize your mortgage, and they typically range from 2% to 6% of the loan amount. Your closing costs on a $300,000 loan could be between $6,000 and $18,000. That’s additional money you’d have to pay, on top of your down payment. In a buyer’s market, you can often ask the seller to pay a portion of your closing costs, and you can save on some expenses, such as home inspections, by shopping around. Move-in expenses: Remember to budget for moving costs, which typically run up to $2,500 for most local moves. (Long-distance moves can be much pricier.) You’ll need some cash after the home purchase. Set some money aside for immediate home repairs, upgrades, and furnishings.
2. Decide how much home you can afford
Figure out how much you can safely spend on a house before starting to shop. NerdWallet’s home affordability calculator can help with setting a price range based on your income, debt, down payment, credit score, and where you plan to live.
3. Check and polish your credit
Your credit score will determine whether you qualify for a mortgage and affect the interest rate lenders will offer. Having a higher score will generally get you a lower interest rate, so take these steps to polish your credit score to buy a house: Get free copies of your credit reports from each of the three credit bureaus — Experian, Equifax, and TransUnion — and dispute any errors that could hurt your score. Pay all your bills on time, and keep credit card balances as low as possible. Keep current credit cards open. Closing a card will increase the portion of available credit you use, which can lower your score. Avoid opening new credit accounts while you’re applying for mortgages. Opening new accounts could put a hard inquiry on your credit report and lower the overall average age of your credit accounts, which could hurt your score. Mortgage selection tips
4. Explore mortgage options
A variety of mortgages are available with varying down payment and eligibility requirements. Here are the main categories: Conventional mortgages are the most common type of home loan and are not guaranteed by the government. Some conventional loans targeted at first-time buyers require as little as 3% down. FHA loans are insured by the Federal Housing Administration and allow down payments as low as 3.5%. USDA loans are guaranteed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. They are for suburban and rural home buyers and usually require no down payment. VA loans are guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs. They are for current military service members and veterans and usually require no down payment. You also have options when it comes to the mortgage term. Most home buyers opt for a 30-year fixed-rate mortgage, which is paid off in 30 years and has an interest rate that stays the same. A 15-year loan typically has a lower interest rate than a 30-year mortgage, but the monthly payments are larger. If you plan to stay in the home for only a few years, you might consider an adjustable-rate mortgage or ARM. ARMs often start with a lower fixed-interest introductory rate, enabling you to buy a more expensive home for the same monthly payment, but they can also increase (or decrease) over time.
5. Research first-time home buyer assistance programs
Many states and some cities and counties offer first-time home buyer programs, which often combine low-interest-rate loans with down payment assistance and closing cost assistance. If you meet low- to moderate-income benchmarks, you could qualify for a grant or forgivable loan that doesn’t need to be paid back. Tax credits, known as mortgage credit certificates, are also available through some first-time home buyer programs.
6. Compare mortgage rates and fees
Plan to shop around for mortgage lenders and compare three to five different quotes. Doing so could save you thousands of dollars in interest over the lifetime of the loan. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau recommends requesting loan estimates for the same type of mortgage from multiple lenders to compare the costs, including interest rates and possible origination fees. Lenders may offer the opportunity to buy discount points, which are fees the borrower pays upfront to lower the interest rate. Buying points can make sense if you have the money and plan to stay in the home for a long time. Use a discount points calculator to decide. In a buyer’s market, some motivated sellers may offer to pay some or all of the buyer’s points to close the deal.
7. Gather your loan paperwork
Before you’re approved for a mortgage, your lender will ask you for financial records to verify your income, assets, and debt, including Proof of income and employment, such as tax returns, W-2s, and 1099s. Statements for bank, retirement, and brokerage accounts. Records of debt payments, such as student loans, auto loans, or any real estate debt. Documentation of other events that impact your finances, such as divorce, bankruptcy, or foreclosure. Pull these documents ahead of time to stay organized throughout the process — you’ll need them for a mortgage preapproval as well as when you apply for the loan.
8. Get a preapproval letter
A mortgage preapproval is a lender’s offer to loan you a certain amount under specific terms. Having a preapproval letter shows home sellers and real estate agents that you’re a serious buyer and can give you an edge over home shoppers who haven’t taken this step yet. Apply for preapproval when you’re ready to start home shopping. A lender will pull your credit and review the documents you organized in the previous step. Applying for preapproval from more than one lender to shop rates shouldn’t hurt your credit score as long as you apply for them within a limited time frame, such as 30 days.
9. Narrow down your ideal type of house and neighborhood
Weigh the pros and cons of different types of homes, given your lifestyle and budget. An existing home generally costs less than buying a new construction home. But if local inventory is low and you have the means, a brand-new home offers enticing options to customize. A condominium or townhome may be more affordable than a single-family home, but shared walls with neighbors will mean less privacy. Don’t forget to budget for homeowners association fees when shopping for condos and townhomes, or houses in planned or gated communities. A manufactured home, including the type commonly called a mobile home, can be an affordable option if you have a tight budget. You’ll need to title it as real property and affix it to a permanent foundation if you want to finance it with a traditional mortgage. Many manufactured homes are financed through chattel loans, which have higher interest rates than mortgages. Fixer-uppers, or single-family homes in need of updates or repairs, usually sell for less per square foot than move-in-ready homes. However, you may need to budget extra for repairs and remodeling. Renovation mortgages finance both the home price and the cost of improvements in one loan. Think about your long-term needs and whether a starter home or forever home will meet them best. If you plan to start or expand your family, it may make sense to buy a home with extra room to grow. Research potential neighborhoods thoroughly, including property values, property taxes, and safety considerations. Choose one with amenities that are important to you, including schools and entertainment options. If you work away from home, test out the commute during rush hour.
10. Stick to your budget
To avoid financial stress down the road, set a price range based on your budget — and then stick to it. A lender may offer to loan you more than what is comfortably affordable, or you may feel pressure to spend outside your comfort zone to beat another buyer’s offer in a bidding war. In a competitive market, consider looking at properties below your price limit to give some wiggle room for bidding. In a buyer’s market, you may be able to view homes a bit above your limit. Your real estate agent can suggest a range for your offering price.
11. Make the most of walk-throughs and open houses
Online 3D home tours have become more popular as technology improves. They don’t supply all the information in-person visits do — like how the carpets smell — but they can help you narrow the list of properties to visit. It’s possible to buy a house sight unseen, but it’s always best to visit in person. Open your senses when walking through a home. Listen for noise, pay attention to any odors, and look at the overall condition of the home inside and out. Ask about the type and age of the electrical and plumbing systems and the roof. Home purchasing tips
12. Don’t skip the home inspections
A home inspection is a thorough assessment of the structure and mechanical systems. Professional inspectors look for potential problems, so you can make an informed decision about buying the property. Here are some things to keep in mind: Standard inspections don’t test for things like radon, mold, or pests. Understand what’s included in the inspection and ask your agent what other inspections you might need. Make sure the inspectors can get to every part of the house, such as the roof and any crawl spaces. The buyer doesn’t have to attend the inspection, but it could be useful to be there. By following the inspectors around you can get a better understanding of the home and ask questions on the spot. If you can’t attend the inspections, review the reports carefully and ask about anything that’s unclear.
13. Negotiate with the seller. ( I will handle this for you )
You may be able to save money by asking the seller to pay for repairs in advance or lower the price to cover the cost of repairs you’ll have to make later. You may also ask the seller to pay some of the closing costs. But keep in mind that lenders may limit the portion of closing costs the seller can pay. Your negotiating power will depend on the local market. It’s tougher to drive a hard bargain when there are more buyers than homes for sale. Work with me to understand the local market and strategize accordingly.
14. Buy adequate home insurance
Your lender will require you to buy homeowners insurance before closing the deal. Home insurance covers the cost to repair or replace your home and belongings if they’re damaged by an incident covered in the policy. It also provides liability insurance if you’re held responsible for an injury or accident. Buy enough home insurance to cover the cost of rebuilding the home if it’s destroyed. It may be worth buying an umbrella policy if you need to cover your home, cars, and other major assets.